// Based on JavaALSExample from the official Spark examples // https://github.com/apache/spark/blob/master/examples/src/main/java/org/apache/spark/examples/ml/JavaALSExample.java // 1. Save the code to als.scala // 2. Run `spark-shell -i als.scala` import spark.implicits._ import org.apache.spark.ml.recommendation.ALS val als = new ALS(). setMaxIter(5). setRegParam(0.01). setUserCol("userId"). setItemCol("movieId"). setRatingCol("rating") import org.apache.spark.ml.recommendation.ALS.Rating // FIXME Use a much richer dataset, i.e. Spark's data/mllib/als/sample_movielens_ratings.txt // FIXME Load it using spark.read val ratings = Seq( Rating(0, 2, 3), Rating(0, 3, 1), Rating(0, 5, 2), Rating(1, 2, 2)).toDF("userId", "movieId", "rating") val Array(training, testing) = ratings.randomSplit(Array(0.8, 0.2)) // Make sure that the RDDs have at least one record assert(training.count > 0) assert(testing.count > 0) import org.apache.spark.ml.recommendation.ALSModel val model = als.fit(training) // drop NaNs model.setColdStartStrategy("drop") val predictions = model.transform(testing) import org.apache.spark.ml.evaluation.RegressionEvaluator val evaluator = new RegressionEvaluator(). setMetricName("rmse"). // root mean squared error setLabelCol("rating"). setPredictionCol("prediction") val rmse = evaluator.evaluate(predictions) println(s"Root-mean-square error = $rmse") // Model is ready for recommendations // Generate top 10 movie recommendations for each user val userRecs = model.recommendForAllUsers(10) userRecs.show(truncate = false) // Generate top 10 user recommendations for each movie val movieRecs = model.recommendForAllItems(10) movieRecs.show(truncate = false) // Generate top 10 movie recommendations for a specified set of users // Use a trick to make sure we work with the known users from the input val users = ratings.select(als.getUserCol).distinct.limit(3) val userSubsetRecs = model.recommendForUserSubset(users, 10) userSubsetRecs.show(truncate = false) // Generate top 10 user recommendations for a specified set of movies val movies = ratings.select(als.getItemCol).distinct.limit(3) val movieSubSetRecs = model.recommendForItemSubset(movies, 10) movieSubSetRecs.show(truncate = false) System.exit(0)
Alternating Least Squares (ALS) Matrix Factorization for Recommender Systems
Alternating Least Squares (ALS) Matrix Factorization is a recommendation algorithm…FIXME
|Read the original paper Scalable Collaborative Filtering with Jointly Derived Neighborhood Interpolation Weights by Robert M. Bell and Yehuda Koren.|
Recommender systems based on collaborative filtering predict user preferences for products or services by learning past user-item relationships. A predominant approach to collaborative filtering is neighborhood based ("k-nearest neighbors"), where a user-item preference rating is interpolated from ratings of similar items and/or users.
Our method is very fast in practice, generating a prediction in about 0.2 milliseconds. Importantly, it does not require training many parameters or a lengthy preprocessing, making it very practical for large scale applications. Finally, we show how to apply these methods to the perceivably much slower user-oriented approach. To this end, we suggest a novel scheme for low dimensional embedding of the users. We evaluate these methods on the Netflix dataset, where they deliver significantly better results than the commercial Netflix Cinematch recommender system.
Scalable Collaborative Filtering with Jointly Derived Neighborhood Interpolation Weights
|Read the follow-up paper Collaborative Filtering for Implicit Feedback Datasets by Yifan Hu, Yehuda Koren and Chris Volinsky.|